Umayyad Coins (CE) | Muslim Heritage
Ibn Khaldun states: "Abdul Malik Ibn Marwan is one of the greatest Arab and Muslim Caliphs. He followed in the footsteps of `Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, the. A frequent charge made against Umayyad Caliph 'Abd al-Malik that Certainly Muslim tradition suggests the Dome of the Rock may have . al-Ya`qubi concerns with the date of meeting between `Abd al-Malik and al-Zuhri. 3 For an up-to-date and wide-ranging introduction to the controversy, see Berg . yet, even before the reign of 'Abd al-Malik, non-Muslim observers already per-.
Within a short period of time, Islamic Coins replaced all Sassanian and Byzantine coins in Muslim lands.
As part of his policy to unify the various regions under Islamic rule, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan CE introduced the first Umayyad gold coins at a time of discord between the Umayyads and Byzantines over the merits of Islam and Christianity.
The early coins were struck either in or ; the Byzantine emperor was angry and refused to accept the new Arab gold currency, renewing the war between the Arabs and the Byzantines.
The new Islamic currency that was first coin to carry an Arabic inscription was called a dinar and was similar, in both size and weight, to the Byzantine solidus. On the obverse, there were three standing figures of unknown identities, as on the Byzantine coin, which had on its obverse the figures of Heracles, Heraclias Constantine, and Heraclonas; on the reverse, the Byzantine cross was replaced by a column placed on three steps topped with a sphere.
In the margin surrounding the design the testimony of Islam was written in Arabic: The Byzantine emperor Justinian II responded to this challenge by striking a new solidus with the head of Christ on the obverse and on the reverse an image of himself robed and holding a cross.
Caliph Abd al-Malik's response was to issue a new dinar in figure 2. On its obverse was the upright figure of the caliph, wearing an Arab headdress and holding a sword, with the testimony of Islam inscribed in the margin. The reverse bore the same column on three steps and the sphere, but a new legend appeared around the margin: Once more, the Byzantine emperor responded by striking a new coin similar to that of the Arabs, which greatly displeased Abd al-Malik.
In the caliph decided to abandon all traces of iconography and introduced the first Islamic coin devoid of figurative representation figure 3.
The authenticity of the letter of ‘Abd Allâh b. Ibâḍ to ‘Abd al-Malik
On both sides of the new dinar were inscribed verses from the Qur'an, expressing the message of Islam and making each piece an individual missionary of the faith. After he introduced this coin, Abd al-Malik issued a decree making it the only currency to be used throughout Umayyad lands.
All remaining Byzantine and Arab-Byzantine pieces were to be handed to the treasury, to be melted down and re-struck. A review of fifty years' research, Byzantine and modern Greek Studies, 28,p. Phillips, Currency in seventh-century Syria as a historical source, Byzantine and modern Greek Studies, 28,p. Two sylloge catalogues which contain material from this early period are L. For the most recent summary of the complex issues surrounding the copper coinage of Damascus, see T. Goodwin, The pseudo-Damascus mint: Grabar, L ' iconoclasme byzantin: Foss, A Syrian coinage of Mu'awiya?
The Mutilated Cross solidus has accordingly been omitted from Table 1. The term "Shahada" the Islamic profession of faith is preferred here as the designation of Phase One because the Shahada is inscribed on the margin of all coins belonging to this phase. The term "Caliphal Image" is proposed in place of the current term "Standing Caliph" because the caliph is represented in both standing and bust form on the coinage of this phase. For illustrations of coins marked with an asterisk in right-hand column of Table 2, see Plates A unique Shahada drachm is also known from the mint of Hims in this year see Album and Goodwin, op.
The Caliphal Image solidus 75 ah published by Miles is widely acknowledged to be inauthentic and has been omitted from Table 2 see G.
Klat, Catalogue of the post-reform dirhams: Table 2 shows that among the nine published specimens of the Shahada solidus only two obverse and three reverse dies have been identified. For an issue which probably spanned two or three years, this suggests that no more than a single die pair was employed per year.
Even though many more gold coins could be struck from a pair of dies than silver coins silver flans, being of a harder metal, cause the dies to deteriorate more quickly than gold flans a single pair of dies employed annually indicates a small total output, particularly when compared to the first year of epigraphic dinar production which Bernardi 's analysis shows to have been struck from at least fifteen dies G."The Power Of Dawah" Imam Johari Abdul-Malik 4/14/2014
Scott, trans, and comm. Byzantine and Near Eastern history, A. For the weight standard of the Shahada solidi, a calculation was made of the average weights of the seven specimens listed in G.
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As for the silver drachms, I recently estimated a figure of 3. The addition of two new specimens 1. See also Morrisson's statement that the weight of the "transitional Islamic gold coinage" was close to that of the Byzantine solidi circulating in Syria 4.
Sears, Before caliphal coins: There is now considerable evidence to suggest that the epigraphic dirham was not struck to its "canonical" weight of 2. The fourth circle is found on the Hims drachm of 72 ah, but on only two of the four Damascus reverse dies of 72 AH.
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It reappears on the Caliphal Image silver drachm Type B. For a complete list of coins with the fourth circle on the reverse, see L. Although rare in Syria, the fourth circle is found on many Iranian issues of the transitional period see, for example, figure 1 below. See also figure 1 1 in Buovsky op.