Gaius Julius Caesar: Commentarii de bello Gallico
Apr 9, from Caesar: Selections from his Commentarii De Bello Gallico . supposed to be pronounced distinctly in mit-tō (see §6, a), an-nus, Latin nouns are classified as masculine, feminine, or neuter. RULE: Cum meaning when is followed by the indicative when the clause merely dates the action of the. Lot CAESAR, Caius Julius ( B.C.), Commentarii de bello Gallico, in Latin, x mm. i + 86 + i leaves: 1 2, 8 2(of 6, iii-vi cancelled blanks), The manuscript, dated , is the work of a scribe who has signed himself. Where I have quoted directly from Latin authors in my own work, I have made my own translation, in an effort to keep Julius Caesar, De bello gallico, VI–
In fact, it is they who decide in almost all disputes, public and private; and if any crime has been committed, or murder done, or there is any disposes about succession or boundaries, they also decide it, determining rewards and penalties: Those that are so banned are reckoned as impious and criminal; all men move out of their path and shun their approach and conversation, for fear they may get some harm from their contact, and no justice is done if they seek it, no distinction falls to their share.
Of all these Druids one is chief, who has the highest authority among them. These Druids, at a certain time of the year, meet within the borders of the Carnutes, whose territory is reckoned as the centre of all Gaul, and sit in conclave in a consecrated spot.
Thither assemble from every side all that have disputes, and they obey the decisions and judgments of the Druids. Report says that in the schools of the Druids they learn by heart a great number of verses, and therefore some persons remain twenty years under training. And they do not think it proper to commit these utterances to writing, although in almost all other matters, and in their public and private accounts, they make use of Greek letters.
The cardinal doctrine which they seek to teach is that souls do not die, but after death pass from one to another; and this belief, as the fear of death is thereby cast aside, they hold to be the greatest incentive to valour.
C. IULIUS CAESAR
Besides this, they have many discussions as touching the stars and their movement, the size of the universe and of the earth, the order of nature, the strength and the powers of the immortal gods, and hand down their lore to the young men. This is the one form of influence and power known to them. They believe, in effect, that, unless for a man's life a man's life be paid, the majesty of the immortal gods may not be appeased; and in public, as in private, life they observe an ordinance of sacrifices of the same kind.
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Others use figures of immense size, whose limbs, woven out of twigs, they fill with living men and set on fire, and the men perish in a sheet of flame. They believe that the execution of those who have been caught in the act of theft or robbery or some crime is more pleasing to the immortal gods; but when the supply of such fails they resort to the execution even of the innocent. There are numerous images of him; they declare him the inventor of all arts, the guide for every road and journey, and they deem him to have the greatest influence for all money-making and traffic.
After him they set Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva. Of these deities they have almost the same idea as all other nations: Apollo drives away diseases, Minerva supplies the first principles of arts and crafts, Jupiter holds the empire of heaven, Mars controls wars.
After a victory they sacrifice such living things as they have taken, and all the other effects they gather into one place.
Commentarii de Bello Gallico - Wikipedia
In many states heaps of such objects are to be seen piled up in hallowed spots, and it has and often happened that a man, in defiance of religious scruple, has dared to conceal such spoils in his house or to remove them from their place, and the most grievous punishment, with torture, is ordained for such an offence. For that reason they determine all periods of time by the number, not of days, but of nights, 2 and in their observance of birthdays and the beginnings of months and years day follows night.
Contemporary, probably Austrian, cut-leather panelled brown calf over wooden boards, pairs of scored and ruled fillets around scrolling acanthus springing from a central roundel, brass clasps and catches to fore-edges, page-edges at head with title, two notarised deeds as flyleaves rebacked with original spine laid down, edges and corners restored, some scuffing, replacement clasps.
The manuscript, datedis the work of a scribe who has signed himself 'Johannes T[ The paper has a balance watermark, close to Piccard V,found in southern Germany and Austria in the 15th century.
The two notarised deeds used as flyleaves come from the diocese of Salzburg. The first is dated 17 January o. Julius Caesar, Commentarii de bello Gallico ff.
Caesar • Gallic War — Book VI, chs. 11‑20
Iulii Caesaris commentaria finiunt feliciter in decimum ad Balbum Additum, to mark the end of Caesar's unfinished text and the dedicatory letter of his continuator, Hirtius, to Balbus, f. Julius Caesar was anxious to establish his own record of his successful campaigns in Gaul from 58 to 52 B. To answer those who accused him of purely personal ambition, he wished to appear as a straightforward soldier, fighting wars that were essential to Rome.
Fascinating for its insights into a man who shaped the history of the western world, his first-hand account of the Gallic Wars is a crucial source for the history of Britain and Germany as well as Gaul.