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A breakdown of the Jewish holidays and festivals, and why some The festival's intermediate days, called “hol hamo'ed,” have many customs and rituals associated Tu Bishvat (a Jewish holiday named for its date - Shvat is the fifth marks the salvation of ancient Persian Jews from a plot to wipe them. jewish persian dating. Persian-jewish women s mental persian jewish culture algorithm might be stronger than, like, dating apps, afshin said. Yet, Iranian-Jewish culture is a major aspect of their lives. she is not supposed to have boyfriends and is only allowed to date with the intent of marriage.
Parents want to ensure that their daughters do not get a bad reputation, because it can ruin their chances of marriage and tarnish the family name.
Iranian-Jewish Values The concept of an unmarried woman being najeeb is so important for Iranian Jews that traits that are valued in American culture such as independence are seen as a threat to her najeebness. Typically, American parents teach their children to be self-reliant, and the children grow up and move out, establishing households of their own. In contrast, the traditional Iranian-Jewish family is characterized by role prescriptions, family obligations, hierarchal relations, intense emotional expressiveness, and collectivist values.
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These values contrast sharply with the emphasis on individualism, self-sufficiency, egalitarianism, and self-development in mainstream American culture. Immigrant children tend to quickly adopt American values and standards, which can create great schisms and challenges to parental control and authority. One trait many of the interviewees appropriated from American culture is the desire for more independence. However, the prevailing belief in the Iranian-Jewish community holds that if a woman shows any sign of independence from her family, such as wanting to move away to college or live on her own before marriage, it is assumed that she is not najeeb, and she is immediately stigmatized.
While the idea of a young woman living on her own is new for many immigrant communities, in America after World War II, it become increasingly common for adult children to move out of their parents' home before marriage.
The trend continued throughout the s and s. By the s, this new life course pattern had become normative for young adults. This new pattern changed the relationships between parents and children, since premarital residential independence reduces parental influence over the daily lives of their children.
Whether it is the fear of waning influence on their daughter's life, a fear of community gossip about their daughter's najeebness, or a fear that the community will assume there is something wrong with the family that has caused their daughter to move away from them, parents do not encourage or allow their daughters to live on their own before marriage. This has made many of my interviewees feel that the rules placed on them are too confining, only further fueling their desire to move away and live on their own.
Generational Conflicts There is a clear disagreement between the two generations about the significance of the community, one's reputation, and the influence of parents.
Iranian-Jewish mothers were heavily dependent on their reputation and family name in order to marry a husband from a reputable family. Their parents had more of a say in their children's lives than the younger generation. Thus, if a man's mother did not approve of a potential wife, he most likely did not marry her. Many first-generation girls refused to allow others to dictate their lives; they believed that if a man is so heavily influenced by his mother and "does not have a mind of his own or a backbone to fight back," then he is not worth being with.
The larger issue is how much influence first-generation Iranian-Jewish women want their parents, specifically their mothers, to have in their lives.
History of the Jews in Iran - Wikipedia
This is one of the most difficult and sensitive issues within the community. The traditional Iranian-Jewish family, like most Middle Eastern families, is extremely tight knit and parents have ultimate control over the lives of their children, especially their daughters. This is a community where one does not move out of their parents' home until married and whom a woman marries is heavily dependent on her parents' approval.
However, these parents are raising their children in America, a country that encourages independence.
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This has caused strife within the family unit. Many first-generation women challenge the amount of influence their parents have on their lives.
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As one of my interviewees, a year-old college student, explained: In an insular community where everyone's life is everyone's business, it is assumed that the opinion, rules, and regulations of one's parents should not only be appropriated, but also appreciated.
The mothers of these young women told me that one of the hardest aspects of raising children in America is the lack of respect and reverence for parents; they fear their children have been influenced by that mentality.
Their own parents had complete control over their lives, and they never disrespected, refuted, or questioned any of their rules and opinions.
As parents themselves, they now feel they have less control and influence over their own children, who have been influenced by American culture, and they find this new relationship to be not only threatening but also sad. Reclaiming the Meaning of Najeeb While most of my interviewees have an issue with the traditional meaning of behind the word najeeb, there is a group of women who has reclaimed this word and assigned a new and more culturally appropriate meaning to it.
Neda, a year-old realtor, explained what it means to be najeeb. She believes this word "does not have to connote a woman who is a virgin and timid, but instead, a woman who is najeeb has self-respect.
It doesn't necessarily mean that she denies herself life experiences and doesn't date or have intimate relationships with men, but instead, it means that she respects herself as a woman; she knows where to draw the line and how to demand that men respect her. In our mothers' generation, an unmarried woman was either najeeb or a slut. They didn't understand that you could be intimate with someone and still maintain your self-respect.
That is what a najeeb woman is to me. It is a new definition that fits into the culture that we are living in. I want to take all the negative association out of this word and use it to empower women as opposed to demoting them.
One interviewee said that "both men and women should be humble and respectful to themselves, their bodies, and to each other. It shouldn't just be the woman who is humble, selfless, and respectful of her body, but he should be too. Early Islamic period — [ edit ] With the Islamic conquest of Persiathe government assigned Jews, along with Christians and Zoroastrians, to the status of dhimmisnon-Muslim subjects of the Islamic empire.
Dhimmis were allowed to practice their religion, but were required to pay jizya to cover the cost of financial welfare, security and other benefits that Muslims were entitled to jizyaa poll taxand initially also kharaja land tax in place of the zakatwhich the Muslim population was required to pay. Like other Dhimmis, Jews were exempt from military draft. Viewed as "People of the Book", they had some status as fellow monotheists, though they were treated differently depending on the ruler at the time.
On the one hand, Jews were granted significant economic and religious freedom when compared to their co-religionists in European nations during these centuries. Many served as doctors, scholars, and craftsman, and gained positions of influence in society. On the other hand, like other non-Muslims, they did not work in Sharia Law since they did not have the obvious knowledge and qualifications for it.
Mongol rule — [ edit ] Statue of Rashid-al-Din HamadaniThe Persian physician of Jewish origin, polymathic writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language during Mongol rule. He was also Grand Vizier of Ilkhanid court. InMongols led by Hulagu Khan invaded parts of Persia, and in they captured Baghdad putting an end to the Abbasid caliphate. The Ilkhanate Mongol rulers abolished the inequality of dhimmis, and all religions were deemed equal.
It was shortly after this time when one of the Ilkhanate rulers, Arghun Khan, preferred Jews for the administrative positions and appointed Sa'd al-Daula, a Jew, as his vizier. The appointment, however, provoked resentment from the Muslim clergyand after Arghun's death inal-Daula was murdered and Persian Jews in Tabriz suffered a period of violent persecutions from the Muslim populace instigated by the clergy.
The Orthodox Christian historian Bar Hebraeus wrote that the violence committed against the Jews during that period "neither tongue can utter, nor the pen write down". Under pressure, many Jews converted to Islam. InTimur Lenk started the military conquest of Persia. He captured HeratKhorasan and all eastern Persia to and massacred almost all inhabitants of Neishapur and other Iranian cities. When revolts broke out in Persia, he ruthlessly suppressed them, massacring the populations of whole cities.
When Timur plundered Persia its artists and artisans were deported to embellish Timur's capital Samarkand.
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Skilled Persian Jews were imported to develop the empire's textile industry. A postcard from the Qajar — period. Hamedan Jews in During the reign of the Safavids —they proclaimed Shi'a Islam the state religion.
This led to a deterioration in their treatment of Persian Jews. Safavids Shi'ism assigns importance to the issues of ritual purity — tahara. Non-Muslims, including Jews, are deemed to be ritually unclean — najis.
Any physical contact would require Shi'as to undertake ritual purification before doing regular prayers. Thus, Persian rulers, and the general populace, sought to limit physical contact between Muslims and Jews.
Jews were excluded from public baths used by Muslims. They were forbidden to go outside during rain or snow, as an "impurity" could be washed from them upon a Muslim.
Toward the end of his rule, treatment of Jews became more harsh. Shi'a clergy including a Jewish convert persuaded the shah to require Jews to wear a distinctive badge on clothing and headgear. Inthe shah ordered the expulsion from Isfahan of all Jews because of the common belief of their "impurity". They were forced to convert to Islam. The treasury suffered from the loss of jizya collected from the Jews. People rumored that the converts continued to practice Judaism in secret.
For whatever reason, the government in allowed Jews to take up their old religion, but still required them to wear a distinctive patch upon their clothing. However, following his murder many Jews were massacred in Mashhad, and survivors were forcibly converted, in an event known as Allahdad incident. The community permanently left Iran in and still lives as a tightly knit community in Israel today.
At the same time, eight Muslim mollas and three European and five Armenian priests translated the Koran and the Gospels. He is not known to have written anything else. A Jewish gathering celebrates the second anniversary of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in Tehran.
Lord Curzon described 19th-century regional differences in the situation of the Persian Jews: In Teheran and Kashan they are also to be found in large numbers and enjoying a fair position. In Shiraz they are very badly off. In Bushire they are prosperous and free from persecution. Two major blood-libel conspiracies had taken place during this period, one in Shiraz and the other in Tabriz. Ina blood-libel had wiped out the Jewish population of Tabriz; a power struggle over influence between Jewish and Christian minorities led the Armenians to kidnap and murder a Muslim child from a prominent family, delivering the body to the chief secretary claiming that the Jews had murdered and drank the blood of the child for Passover.
Amidst the chaos, Jews had converted, but most refused to convert to Islam - described within the document was a boy of age 16 named Yahyia who refused to convert to Islam, he was subsequently killed. The same year saw a forcible conversion of the Jews of Shiraz over a similar incident.
In addition to the Allahdad incident mentioned above in European travellers reported that the Jews of Tabriz and Shiraz continued to practice Judaism in secret despite a fear of further persecutions. Jews of BarforushMazandaran were forcibly converted in When the French and British ambassadors intervened to allow them to practice their traditional religion, a mob killed 18 Jews of Barforush. In the middle of the 19th century, J.
Benjamin wrote about the life of Persian Jews, describing conditions and beliefs that went back to the 16th century: They are obliged to live in a separate part of town…; for they are considered as unclean creatures… Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt… For the same reason, they are prohibited to go out when it rains; for it is said the rain would wash dirt off them, which would sully the feet of the Mussulmans… If a Jew is recognized as such in the streets, he is subjected to the greatest insults.
The passers-by spit in his face, and sometimes beat him… unmercifully… If a Jew enters a shop for anything, he is forbidden to inspect the goods… Should his hand incautiously touch the goods, he must take them at any price the seller chooses to ask for them Sometimes the Persians intrude into the dwellings of the Jews and take possession of whatever please them. Should the owner make the least opposition in defense of his property, he incurs the danger of atoning for it with his life Muslims plundered the whole Jewish quarter.
The first to start looting were soldiers sent by the local governor to defend the Jews against the enraged mob. Twelve Jews who tried to defend their property were killed, and many others were injured. Pahlavi dynasty — [ edit ] The Pahlavi dynasty implemented modernizing reforms, which greatly improved the life of Jews. The influence of the Shi'a clergy was weakened, and the restrictions on Jews and other religious minorities were abolished.
Reza Shah prohibited mass conversion of Jews and eliminated the concept of uncleanness of non-Muslims. He allowed incorporation of modern Hebrew into the curriculum of Jewish schools and publication of Jewish newspapers.